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加快建設農業強國  推進農業農村現代化
發布時間:2023-03-22 08:31:45瀏覽次數:6503次
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習近平

 

   這次中央農村工作(zuo)會議的主要任(ren)務(wu)是:全面貫徹(che)落(luo)實黨的二十(shi)大(da)精神,總(zong)結今年“三農”工作(zuo),研究部署(shu)明年工作(zuo),就加快建(jian)設農業(ye)強(qiang)國進行戰略部署(shu)。  

    黨(dang)的二十大(da)閉(bi)幕(mu)后(hou),我第一次外出考察(cha)去了陜西延安(an)、河南安(an)陽看鄉村振(zhen)興,一路思考在全(quan)面(mian)建設社會主義現代化(hua)國家新(xin)征程上如何加快建設農業強(qiang)國、推進(jin)農業農村現代化(hua)。這次會議我來講(jiang)講(jiang),就是表(biao)明(ming)黨(dang)中央(yang)加強(qiang)“三(san)農(nong)”工作(zuo)的鮮明態度(du),發出重農(nong)強(qiang)農(nong)的強(qiang)烈信號。下(xia)面,我就加(jia)快(kuai)建設農(nong)業強(qiang)國、加(jia)強(qiang)“三(san)農(nong)”工作(zuo)講幾(ji)點(dian)意見。  

    一、錨定(ding)建設農(nong)業強國目標,切實抓好(hao)農(nong)業農(nong)村工作  

黨(dang)的二十大在(zai)擘畫(hua)全(quan)面建成社(she)會主(zhu)義現代(dai)化強(qiang)國宏偉藍圖時,對農業農村工作(zuo)進行了總體部(bu)署。概括(kuo)地講:未來(lai)5年“三(san)農”工(gong)作(zuo)要全(quan)(quan)面推進鄉村振興,到2035年基本實現農業(ye)現代(dai)化,到本世紀(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)葉(xie)建成農業(ye)強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)國(guo)。這(zhe)是(shi)黨中(zhong)(zhong)央著眼全(quan)(quan)面建成社(she)會(hui)主義現代(dai)化強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)國(guo)作(zuo)出的戰(zhan)略部(bu)署。強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)國(guo)必(bi)先(xian)強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)農,農強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)方能國(guo)強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)。沒(mei)(mei)有(you)農業(ye)強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)國(guo)就沒(mei)(mei)有(you)整個(ge)現代(dai)化強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)國(guo);沒(mei)(mei)有(you)農業(ye)農村現代(dai)化,社(she)會(hui)主義現代(dai)化就是(shi)不全(quan)(quan)面的。我們必(bi)須深刻領會(hui)黨中(zhong)(zhong)央這(zhe)一戰(zhan)略部(bu)署,把加快建設(she)農業(ye)強(qiang)國擺上建設(she)社會主義現代化強(qiang)國的(de)重要位(wei)置。  

農業強國(guo)是(shi)社(she)會主義現代(dai)化(hua)強國(guo)的(de)根基(ji)。農業是(shi)基(ji)礎,基(ji)礎不牢(lao)大廈不穩。無論(lun)社(she)會現代(dai)化(hua)程度有多高,14億多人(ren)(ren)(ren)口的(de)(de)糧(liang)食和(he)(he)重(zhong)要(yao)(yao)農(nong)(nong)產品(pin)穩(wen)定供(gong)給(gei)始終是頭等(deng)大(da)事。滿足人(ren)(ren)(ren)民美好生(sheng)活(huo)需(xu)要(yao)(yao),離(li)不(bu)開農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)。全面建(jian)設社(she)會主義現(xian)代(dai)化(hua)(hua)國家,出發(fa)(fa)點(dian)和(he)(he)落腳點(dian)是讓人(ren)(ren)(ren)民生(sheng)活(huo)越(yue)過越(yue)好。現(xian)代(dai)化(hua)(hua)越(yue)往(wang)前走、物質(zhi)生(sheng)活(huo)越(yue)豐富,人(ren)(ren)(ren)民群眾越(yue)喜歡(huan)山清(qing)水秀的(de)(de)田園風(feng)光(guang)(guang),農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)除(chu)了保障糧(liang)食和(he)(he)重(zhong)要(yao)(yao)農(nong)(nong)產品(pin)供(gong)給(gei),其生(sheng)態涵養、休閑觀光(guang)(guang)、文化(hua)(hua)傳承的(de)(de)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)就(jiu)越(yue)能(neng)(neng)發(fa)(fa)揮(hui)積極(ji)作用。農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)是近兩億人(ren)(ren)(ren)就(jiu)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)產業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye),農(nong)(nong)村是近5億農(nong)(nong)民常住的(de)(de)家園,只有(you)把農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)農(nong)(nong)村搞好了,廣(guang)大(da)農(nong)(nong)民安(an)(an)(an)(an)居樂業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye),他們才有(you)充(chong)足的(de)(de)獲得感、幸(xing)福(fu)感、安(an)(an)(an)(an)全感。實(shi)現(xian)高(gao)質(zhi)量發(fa)(fa)展(zhan),也(ye)離(li)不(bu)開農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)。只有(you)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)強了,農(nong)(nong)產品(pin)供(gong)給(gei)有(you)保障,物價穩(wen)定、人(ren)(ren)(ren)心安(an)(an)(an)(an)定,經(jing)濟(ji)(ji)大(da)局(ju)才能(neng)(neng)穩(wen)住。拓(tuo)展(zhan)現(xian)代(dai)化(hua)(hua)發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)空間,農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)農(nong)(nong)村是大(da)有(you)可為的(de)(de)廣(guang)闊(kuo)天地。幾億農(nong)(nong)民整體邁入現(xian)代(dai)化(hua)(hua),會釋放巨大(da)的(de)(de)創造動能(neng)(neng)和(he)(he)消費(fei)潛能(neng)(neng),為經(jing)濟(ji)(ji)社(she)會發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)注入強大(da)動力。暢通工農(nong)(nong)城鄉循環,是暢通國內經(jing)濟(ji)(ji)大(da)循環、增(zeng)強我國經(jing)濟(ji)(ji)韌(ren)性和(he)(he)戰略縱(zong)深的(de)(de)重(zhong)要(yao)(yao)方面。擴內需(xu)、穩(wen)增(zeng)長、促發(fa)(fa)展(zhan),農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)強國建(jian)設是重(zhong)要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)發(fa)(fa)力點(dian)和(he)(he)突破口。農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)還是國家安(an)(an)(an)(an)全的(de)(de)基礎。農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)保的(de)(de)是生(sheng)命安(an)(an)(an)(an)全、生(sheng)存安(an)(an)(an)(an)全,是極(ji)端重(zhong)要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)國家安(an)(an)(an)(an)全。當今(jin)世界,百(bai)年(nian)未有(you)之大(da)變局(ju)加(jia)速演進,新冠(guan)疫情(qing)反復延宕,來自外部的(de)(de)打壓遏制不(bu)斷(duan)升級,各種不(bu)確(que)定難(nan)預料因素(su)明顯增(zeng)多。一旦農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)出問(wen)題(ti),飯碗被人(ren)(ren)(ren)拿住,看別人(ren)(ren)(ren)臉色吃飯,還談什么現(xian)代(dai)化(hua)(hua)建(jian)設?只有(you)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)強起(qi)來,糧(liang)食安(an)(an)(an)(an)全有(you)完全保障,我們穩(wen)大(da)局(ju)、應(ying)變局(ju)、開新局(ju)才有(you)充(chong)足底(di)氣和(he)(he)戰略主動。  

現(xian)在,農業農村仍然(ran)是我國(guo)現(xian)代化建(jian)設(she)的短板。進入(ru)新時代,黨中央堅持高(gao)度重(zhong)視“三(san)(san)農(nong)(nong)”工作的(de)(de)(de)(de)傳統,在新中(zhong)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)成(cheng)立(li)以(yi)來特(te)別是改革開放以(yi)來工作的(de)(de)(de)(de)基(ji)礎上,通過開展(zhan)脫貧(pin)攻堅(jian)、實施鄉村振興戰略等(deng),用有限資(zi)源穩(wen)定解決14億多(duo)(duo)人(ren)口的(de)(de)(de)(de)吃飯問題,全體農(nong)(nong)民擺脫絕對貧(pin)困、同步(bu)進(jin)入(ru)全面小(xiao)康,“三(san)(san)農(nong)(nong)”工作成(cheng)就(jiu)巨大、舉(ju)世公(gong)認。同時,受制于人(ren)均資(zi)源不(bu)足、底子薄、歷史(shi)欠賬(zhang)較(jiao)多(duo)(duo)等(deng)原(yuan)因,“三(san)(san)農(nong)(nong)”仍然(ran)(ran)是一個(ge)薄弱環節(jie),同新型工業(ye)(ye)(ye)化(hua)(hua)(hua)、信息化(hua)(hua)(hua)、城鎮化(hua)(hua)(hua)相比(bi),農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)現(xian)(xian)代化(hua)(hua)(hua)明顯(xian)滯后(hou)。主要(yao)表現(xian)(xian)在:農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)生產(chan)效(xiao)(xiao)率(lv)相對較(jiao)低,農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)勞動生產(chan)率(lv)僅為(wei)非農(nong)(nong)產(chan)業(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)(de)(de)25.3%;農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)比(bi)較(jiao)效(xiao)(xiao)益低下(xia);農(nong)(nong)產(chan)品國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)際競爭力明顯(xian)不(bu)足,國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)內(nei)糧(liang)食等(deng)農(nong)(nong)產(chan)品價格普遍超過國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)際市(shi)場;農(nong)(nong)村基(ji)礎設施和公(gong)共(gong)服務落后(hou)于城市(shi);城鄉居民收(shou)入(ru)比(bi)為(wei)2.5∶1、消費支出比(bi)為(wei)1.9∶1。這是黨中(zhong)央強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)調全面推(tui)進(jin)鄉村振興、加快建設農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)一個(ge)重要(yao)原(yuan)因。  建設農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo),基(ji)本要(yao)求(qiu)是實現(xian)(xian)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)現(xian)(xian)代化(hua)(hua)(hua)。我們要(yao)建設的(de)(de)(de)(de)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)、實現(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)現(xian)(xian)代化(hua)(hua)(hua),既有國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)一般現(xian)(xian)代化(hua)(hua)(hua)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)共(gong)同特(te)征,更有基(ji)于自己(ji)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)情的(de)(de)(de)(de)中(zhong)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)特(te)色。所(suo)謂共(gong)同特(te)征,就(jiu)是要(yao)遵循農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)現(xian)(xian)代化(hua)(hua)(hua)一般規律(lv),建設供(gong)給(gei)保障強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)、科技裝備強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)、經營體系強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)、產(chan)業(ye)(ye)(ye)韌性強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)、競爭能力強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)。所(suo)謂中(zhong)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)特(te)色,就(jiu)是立(li)足我國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)情,立(li)足人(ren)多(duo)(duo)地少(shao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)資(zi)源稟(bing)賦(fu)、農(nong)(nong)耕文明的(de)(de)(de)(de)歷史(shi)底蘊、人(ren)與自然(ran)(ran)和諧共(gong)生的(de)(de)(de)(de)時代要(yao)求(qiu),走(zou)自己(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)路(lu),不(bu)簡(jian)單照搬國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)現(xian)(xian)代化(hua)(hua)(hua)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)模式。

  農業強(qiang)國(guo)的中國(guo)特色,我看主要(yao)應(ying)該(gai)包括以下幾個方面:一是依(yi)靠自己力量(liang)端牢飯碗。14億(yi)多人口(kou)的(de)(de)(de)中國,任(ren)何時候都必須自(zi)力(li)更(geng)(geng)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)保自(zi)己的(de)(de)(de)飯(fan)碗,堅持產(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)產(chan)(chan)能(neng)一起抓(zhua)、數(shu)量(liang)(liang)質(zhi)量(liang)(liang)一起抓(zhua)、生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)態(tai)一起抓(zhua),增強(qiang)農(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)產(chan)(chan)業(ye)鏈供應鏈韌(ren)性和(he)穩定性。二是(shi)依(yi)托(tuo)雙(shuang)層經(jing)營體制發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)農(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)。立(li)足小(xiao)農(nong)(nong)(nong)數(shu)量(liang)(liang)眾多的(de)(de)(de)基(ji)本(ben)(ben)農(nong)(nong)(nong)情(qing),以家庭(ting)經(jing)營為(wei)基(ji)礎,堅持統分結合(he),廣泛開展(zhan)(zhan)面向小(xiao)農(nong)(nong)(nong)的(de)(de)(de)社(she)會(hui)化服務,積極培(pei)育(yu)新型農(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)經(jing)營主體,形(xing)成中國特色(se)的(de)(de)(de)農(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)適度規模經(jing)營。三是(shi)發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)態(tai)低碳農(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)。堅持綠色(se)是(shi)農(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)的(de)(de)(de)底(di)色(se)、生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)態(tai)是(shi)農(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)的(de)(de)(de)底(di)盤。必須摒(bing)棄竭澤(ze)而漁、焚(fen)藪而田、大(da)水大(da)肥、大(da)拆大(da)建的(de)(de)(de)老路子,實(shi)現農(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)、農(nong)(nong)(nong)村建設、鄉村生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活(huo)(huo)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)態(tai)良性循環,生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)態(tai)農(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)、低碳鄉村成為(wei)現實(shi),做(zuo)到資源節約、環境友好(hao),守(shou)住綠水青山。四是(shi)賡(geng)續(xu)農(nong)(nong)(nong)耕文(wen)(wen)明。我(wo)國擁有燦爛(lan)悠久(jiu)的(de)(de)(de)農(nong)(nong)(nong)耕文(wen)(wen)明,必須確保其根脈(mo)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)不息(xi),做(zuo)到鄉村社(she)會(hui)形(xing)態(tai)完整有效,文(wen)(wen)化基(ji)因、美好(hao)品(pin)德傳(chuan)承弘揚,農(nong)(nong)(nong)耕文(wen)(wen)明和(he)城市文(wen)(wen)明交相輝映,物(wu)質(zhi)文(wen)(wen)明和(he)精(jing)神文(wen)(wen)明協調發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan),廣大(da)農(nong)(nong)(nong)民自(zi)信自(zi)強(qiang)、振奮昂揚,精(jing)神力(li)量(liang)(liang)充(chong)盈。五是(shi)扎實(shi)推(tui)進(jin)共(gong)同富(fu)裕(yu)。實(shi)現城鄉融合(he)發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)、基(ji)本(ben)(ben)公共(gong)服務均等化,農(nong)(nong)(nong)村具備現代生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活(huo)(huo)條(tiao)件(jian),農(nong)(nong)(nong)民全(quan)(quan)面發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)、過上更(geng)(geng)加富(fu)裕(yu)更(geng)(geng)加美好(hao)的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活(huo)(huo)。同時,我(wo)們建設農(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)強(qiang)國,也是(shi)在為(wei)全(quan)(quan)球可持續(xu)發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)、消(xiao)除貧困貢獻中國力(li)量(liang)(liang)。

加快建設農業強國是新時代新征程我們黨做好“三農(nong)(nong)”工(gong)作(zuo)的(de)戰略部署,必須保持戰略定(ding)力、久久為功。當(dang)前,要錨定(ding)建(jian)設農(nong)(nong)業強國目(mu)標,科學謀劃(hua)和推進(jin)“三農(nong)(nong)”工(gong)作(zuo)。一(yi)(yi)(yi)要加強頂層(ceng)設計。制(zhi)定(ding)加快建(jian)設農(nong)(nong)業強國規(gui)(gui)劃(hua),針對未來(lai)5年(nian)(nian)、2035年(nian)(nian)、本世紀中葉的(de)目(mu)標,分(fen)別制(zhi)定(ding)路線圖和施工(gong)圖,強化規(gui)(gui)劃(hua)的(de)法規(gui)(gui)效(xiao)力。制(zhi)定(ding)規(gui)(gui)劃(hua)要同現(xian)有規(gui)(gui)劃(hua)相銜接,保持工(gong)作(zuo)連續性,不(bu)能“翻燒餅”。要嚴格執行規(gui)(gui)劃(hua),堅(jian)決防止不(bu)把(ba)規(gui)(gui)劃(hua)當(dang)回事(shi)。二要循序漸進(jin)、穩(wen)扎(zha)(zha)穩(wen)打。建(jian)設農(nong)(nong)業強國是一(yi)(yi)(yi)項(xiang)長期(qi)而艱巨的(de)歷史任務,要分(fen)階段(duan)扎(zha)(zha)實穩(wen)步推進(jin),以(yi)釘(ding)(ding)釘(ding)(ding)子精(jing)神(shen)鍥而不(bu)舍(she)干下去。當(dang)前要把(ba)重點放在全(quan)面推進(jin)鄉(xiang)村振(zhen)興上,多做打基礎(chu)、利長遠(yuan)的(de)事(shi)情。三要因(yin)地(di)制(zhi)宜、注重實效(xiao)。各地(di)要立足(zu)資(zi)源稟賦和發展階段(duan),發揮自身優勢,服務大局(ju)需(xu)要,作(zuo)出應有貢獻,從本地(di)農(nong)(nong)業農(nong)(nong)村發展最(zui)迫切、農(nong)(nong)民(min)反映最(zui)強烈的(de)實際問題入手,充分(fen)調動(dong)農(nong)(nong)民(min)群眾的(de)積極(ji)性、主(zhu)動(dong)性、創造性,辦(ban)一(yi)(yi)(yi)項(xiang)是一(yi)(yi)(yi)項(xiang)、辦(ban)一(yi)(yi)(yi)件(jian)成一(yi)(yi)(yi)件(jian),不(bu)要一(yi)(yi)(yi)股腦去搞脫離(li)實際的(de)“高大上”或(huo)面子工(gong)程的(de)東西(xi)。  

    二、保障糧食和(he)重要農產品(pin)穩定安全供(gong)給始(shi)終是建設農業強國的頭等大事  

無農不穩(wen),無糧則亂。這一(yi)幕在古(gu)今中外反復(fu)上(shang)演。歷史上(shang),齊國(guo)誘導魯國(guo)棄糧種桑,關(guan)鍵時候斷糧降服魯國(guo);越王勾踐把種子煮熟貢給吳(wu)國(guo),趁其糧食絕收一(yi)舉滅吳(wu)。今年烏克蘭危(wei)機爆發以來,全(quan)球30多個(ge)國家限制糧(liang)食出(chu)口,部分國家因此社會動(dong)(dong)(dong)蕩甚(shen)至政權(quan)更迭(die)。只有把牢糧(liang)食安(an)全主(zhu)動(dong)(dong)(dong)權(quan),才能把穩(wen)強國復興主(zhu)動(dong)(dong)(dong)權(quan)。  

農業強,首(shou)要是糧(liang)食和重(zhong)要農產(chan)品供給保障能(neng)力必須強。這些年,我們依靠自己的(de)力量端穩中(zhong)國飯(fan)碗,14億多人吃飽吃好(hao)。現在,糧食需求剛(gang)性(xing)增(zeng)長,端牢飯碗(wan)的壓(ya)力(li)大。必須全方(fang)位夯實糧食安(an)全根(gen)基(ji),既要(yao)抓(zhua)物質基(ji)礎,強化藏糧于地、藏糧于技,也要(yao)抓(zhua)機制(zhi)保(bao)障,做到產(chan)能(neng)提升、結構(gou)優化、韌(ren)性(xing)增(zeng)強、收益保(bao)障、責任壓(ya)實。  

提(ti)升(sheng)糧食產(chan)能仍然(ran)是首要(yao)任務。我國糧食產(chan)量已經連續8年保持在(zai)1.3萬億斤(jin)高(gao)平臺上,越往前(qian)走(zou)難度越大(da)。要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)實施新一(yi)輪千億斤(jin)糧(liang)食(shi)產(chan)(chan)能提升行動,抓(zhua)緊制定(ding)實施方案,把任務落(luo)實下去(qu)。提產(chan)(chan)能關鍵(jian)還(huan)是抓(zhua)耕地(di)和種(zhong)(zhong)子兩個要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)害(hai)。要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)堅決守住(zhu)18億畝耕地(di)紅線,堅決遏制“非(fei)農(nong)化”、有效(xiao)防止(zhi)“非(fei)糧(liang)化”。堅持良田(tian)(tian)糧(liang)用大(da)原(yuan)則(ze),良田(tian)(tian)好土要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)優先保糧(liang)食(shi),果樹苗木盡量上山上坡(po),蔬(shu)菜(cai)園藝(yi)更多靠設施農(nong)業(ye)和工(gong)廠化種(zhong)(zhong)植。治(zhi)理“非(fei)糧(liang)化”政策性很強(qiang)(qiang),要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)統籌考慮糧(liang)食(shi)生產(chan)(chan)和重(zhong)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)農(nong)產(chan)(chan)品保障(zhang)、農(nong)民增收(shou)的關系(xi),留(liu)出(chu)一(yi)定(ding)過渡期,加強(qiang)(qiang)政策引導。要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)逐步把永久基本農(nong)田(tian)(tian)全(quan)部建(jian)成(cheng)(cheng)高(gao)標準農(nong)田(tian)(tian),盡快提出(chu)落(luo)實辦法,該(gai)拿(na)的錢要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)拿(na)到(dao)位(wei),建(jian)設質量和管護機制也要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)到(dao)位(wei),確保建(jian)一(yi)塊成(cheng)(cheng)一(yi)塊。抓(zhua)種(zhong)(zhong)子要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)選準突破口(kou),持續(xu)發(fa)力、協同攻關,把種(zhong)(zhong)業(ye)振(zhen)興行動切(qie)實抓(zhua)出(chu)成(cheng)(cheng)效(xiao),把當家品種(zhong)(zhong)牢牢攥在(zai)自己手里。生物育種(zhong)(zhong)是大(da)方向,要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)加快產(chan)(chan)業(ye)化步伐。  

確保(bao)糧食(shi)安全,不僅要著眼平時,還要提升應(ying)急保(bao)供能(neng)力(li),系(xi)統梳理生產、加工、流通、儲備、貿易(yi)等方面可能(neng)存在(zai)的風(feng)險點。  

農民種糧(liang)能掙錢,糧(liang)食生(sheng)產才有保障。要健全種糧(liang)農民收(shou)益保障機制,完善價(jia)格、補貼(tie)、保險“三(san)位一體”的政策體系,完善農資保(bao)供穩價應對機制,穩定農民預期、降(jiang)低生產(chan)風(feng)險。要創新糧食生產(chan)經營方式,延伸產(chan)業鏈條,實現節本增效。要出實招健全主產(chan)區利益補償(chang)機制,探索產(chan)銷區多渠道利益補償(chang)辦法。既不(bu)能(neng)讓種(zhong)糧農民在(zai)經(jing)濟(ji)上吃虧(kui),也(ye)不(bu)能(neng)讓種(zhong)糧大縣(xian)在(zai)財(cai)政上吃虧(kui)。  

保障糧食安全,要在增(zeng)產和減損兩(liang)端同(tong)時發力(li)。當(dang)前,食物(wu)采收、儲運、加工、銷售、消(xiao)費每(mei)個環節都有(you)“跑冒(mao)滴漏”,情況還(huan)相(xiang)當嚴(yan)(yan)重。據(ju)有關機(ji)構(gou)估算,每年(nian)損(sun)(sun)失浪費(fei)(fei)(fei)的(de)(de)食(shi)(shi)(shi)物超過22.7%,約(yue)9200億斤,若能挽(wan)回一半(ban)的(de)(de)損(sun)(sun)失,就夠1.9億人吃一年(nian)。消費(fei)(fei)(fei)環節大(da)(da)有文章可(ke)做(zuo),不(bu)(bu)僅(jin)要(yao)(yao)制(zhi)止“舌尖(jian)上的(de)(de)浪費(fei)(fei)(fei)”,深入開展“光盤行(xing)動”,還(huan)要(yao)(yao)提倡健康飲食(shi)(shi)(shi)。我國居民(min)食(shi)(shi)(shi)用油和“紅肉”人均消費(fei)(fei)(fei)量,分(fen)別超過膳食(shi)(shi)(shi)指南推(tui)薦(jian)標準約(yue)1倍和2倍。食(shi)(shi)(shi)物節約(yue)減(jian)損(sun)(sun)既可(ke)有效減(jian)輕供給壓力,也(ye)可(ke)減(jian)少資(zi)源使用,善(shan)莫大(da)(da)焉(yan)。要(yao)(yao)樹立節約(yue)減(jian)損(sun)(sun)就是(shi)增產的(de)(de)理念,推(tui)進全鏈條節約(yue)減(jian)損(sun)(sun),健全常態化(hua)、長效化(hua)工(gong)作機(ji)制(zhi),每個環節都要(yao)(yao)有具體抓手,越(yue)是(shi)損(sun)(sun)失浪費(fei)(fei)(fei)嚴(yan)(yan)重的(de)(de)環節越(yue)要(yao)(yao)抓得(de)實(shi)。要(yao)(yao)持續深化(hua)食(shi)(shi)(shi)物節約(yue)各項行(xing)動,強(qiang)化(hua)剛(gang)性約(yue)束,加大(da)(da)工(gong)作力度,不(bu)(bu)棄微末、不(bu)(bu)舍(she)寸功(gong),盡快取(qu)得(de)更大(da)(da)成(cheng)效。

 解決吃飯問題,不能(neng)光(guang)盯(ding)著(zhu)有限的耕(geng)地,要把思路打開,樹立(li)大(da)食物觀。“吃飯”不僅僅是消費糧食,肉蛋(dan)奶、果菜(cai)魚、菌(jun)菇筍等樣(yang)樣(yang)都是美食。耕(geng)地以外,我國還有(you)40多億畝(mu)林地、近40億畝(mu)草地和(he)大量的江河湖海(hai)等資(zi)源。要(yao)構建多元化食物(wu)(wu)供(gong)給體系,在保(bao)護(hu)好生(sheng)(sheng)態(tai)環境前(qian)提下,從(cong)耕(geng)地資(zi)源向整個(ge)國土資(zi)源拓展(zhan)(zhan),從(cong)傳(chuan)統農作(zuo)物(wu)(wu)和(he)畜(chu)禽(qin)資(zi)源向更豐富的生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)資(zi)源拓展(zhan)(zhan),向森(sen)林、草原、江河湖海(hai)要(yao)食物(wu)(wu),向植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)動物(wu)(wu)微生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)要(yao)熱量、要(yao)蛋(dan)白,多途徑開發(fa)食物(wu)(wu)來源。設(she)施農業大有(you)可為(wei),要(yao)發(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)日光溫(wen)室、植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)工廠(chang)和(he)集(ji)約(yue)化畜(chu)禽(qin)養殖,推進陸基和(he)深遠(yuan)海(hai)養殖漁場建設(she),拓寬農業生(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)空間領域。  

在(zai)保障糧食(shi)安全的同時,必須保證其他重要(yao)農(nong)產品穩定安全供給(gei),特別是(shi)抓(zhua)好(hao)大豆和油料生產,抓(zhua)好(hao)生豬(zhu)和“菜籃子(zi)”工程。這些都作了(le)部署,關鍵是扎扎實(shi)實(shi)抓落實(shi)。 

各(ge)級(ji)黨委和政府務必把糧食安全這一(yi)“國(guo)之(zhi)大者”扛(kang)在肩(jian)頭。衡量一個地方(fang)領導干部(bu)(bu)得不(bu)(bu)得力、合(he)不(bu)(bu)合(he)格(ge),可不(bu)(bu)僅僅看(kan)GDP、能不(bu)(bu)能抓上(shang)幾個項目(mu),更主要看(kan)是否按照黨中央要求(qiu),完(wan)整、準確(que)、全面貫(guan)徹新發展理念,局(ju)部(bu)(bu)服從整體(ti),把糧食(shi)安(an)全這(zhe)類黨中央交辦(ban)(ban)的(de)大事要事辦(ban)(ban)好辦(ban)(ban)妥。糧食(shi)安(an)全黨政同責要求(qiu)很明確(que),現在關鍵是要嚴格(ge)考核,督促各地真正把責任扛(kang)起來。 

 三、全面推進鄉村振興是新時代建設農業強(qiang)國的(de)重要任務     

 建設農業強國(guo),當前要抓好鄉村振興。“三農(nong)”工(gong)作重(zhong)心已(yi)經實現歷史性(xing)轉(zhuan)移,人力(li)投入、物力(li)配置、財力(li)保障都要轉(zhuan)移到鄉村(cun)振(zhen)興上來。這件事剛剛破題,更為(wei)艱巨繁(fan)重(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)任務還(huan)在后面,決(jue)不能(neng)松勁歇腳,更不能(neng)換頻(pin)道。總的(de)(de)(de)要求仍(reng)然是(shi)全(quan)面推(tui)進產業(ye)、人才、文化、生(sheng)態、組織(zhi)“五(wu)個振(zhen)興”。“五(wu)個振(zhen)興”是(shi)相(xiang)互聯系、相(xiang)互支撐(cheng)、相(xiang)互促進的(de)(de)(de)有機統一(yi)整體(ti),要統籌(chou)部(bu)署、協同推(tui)進,抓住重(zhong)點、補齊短板,還(huan)要強調(diao)精準、因(yin)地制宜,激發乘數效(xiao)應和化學反應,提(ti)高全(quan)面推(tui)進鄉村(cun)振(zhen)興的(de)(de)(de)效(xiao)力(li)效(xiao)能(neng)。  

 產(chan)業(ye)振(zhen)興是鄉(xiang)村振(zhen)興的重中之重,也是實(shi)際工作(zuo)的切入點。沒有產(chan)業(ye)的農村,難聚(ju)人氣(qi),更談不(bu)上留(liu)住(zhu)人才,農民增收路子(zi)拓(tuo)不(bu)寬,文化活動(dong)很難開展起來。各地(di)推動(dong)產(chan)業(ye)振(zhen)興,要把“土(tu)特(te)(te)產(chan)(chan)”這3個字琢磨透。“土(tu)”講的(de)是(shi)基于一方水土(tu),開發(fa)鄉(xiang)土(tu)資源。要(yao)善于分析新的(de)市(shi)場環境(jing)、新的(de)技術條件,用好(hao)新的(de)營銷(xiao)手段,打開視(shi)野來用好(hao)當地(di)資源,注重開發(fa)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)產(chan)(chan)業(ye)新功能(neng)、農(nong)(nong)村生態新價值,如發(fa)展生態旅游、民(min)俗文(wen)化、休閑觀光等。“特(te)(te)”講的(de)是(shi)突出地(di)域特(te)(te)點,體現(xian)當地(di)風情。要(yao)跳出本地(di)看(kan)本地(di),打造(zao)為廣大消(xiao)費者所認可、能(neng)形成(cheng)競爭優勢的(de)特(te)(te)色,如因(yin)地(di)制宜(yi)打造(zao)蘋果村、木耳鄉(xiang)、黃花鎮等。“產(chan)(chan)”講的(de)是(shi)真正建成(cheng)產(chan)(chan)業(ye)、形成(cheng)集群(qun)。要(yao)延(yan)長農(nong)(nong)產(chan)(chan)品產(chan)(chan)業(ye)鏈(lian),發(fa)展農(nong)(nong)產(chan)(chan)品加工、保鮮儲藏、運輸銷(xiao)售等,形成(cheng)一定(ding)規模,把農(nong)(nong)產(chan)(chan)品增值收益留在農(nong)(nong)村、留給(gei)農(nong)(nong)民(min)。產(chan)(chan)業(ye)梯度轉移是(shi)個趨勢,各地(di)發(fa)展特(te)(te)色產(chan)(chan)業(ye)時要(yao)抓(zhua)住(zhu)這個機遇(yu)。總之,要(yao)依托(tuo)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)農(nong)(nong)村特(te)(te)色資源,向開發(fa)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)多(duo)種功能(neng)、挖掘鄉(xiang)村多(duo)元價值要(yao)效益,向一二(er)三(san)產(chan)(chan)業(ye)融合發(fa)展要(yao)效益,強龍頭(tou)、補(bu)鏈(lian)條、興業(ye)態、樹品牌,推(tui)動鄉(xiang)村產(chan)(chan)業(ye)全(quan)鏈(lian)條升(sheng)級(ji),增強市(shi)場競爭力和(he)可持續發(fa)展能(neng)力。  

 促進(jin)產(chan)(chan)業(ye)(ye)(ye)振興(xing),必須落(luo)(luo)(luo)實(shi)(shi)產(chan)(chan)業(ye)(ye)(ye)幫(bang)扶政策。最近,審計(ji)署開(kai)展(zhan)了國家鄉(xiang)村振興(xing)重點(dian)幫(bang)扶縣產(chan)(chan)業(ye)(ye)(ye)幫(bang)扶政策落(luo)(luo)(luo)實(shi)(shi)和資金審計(ji)。審計(ji)結(jie)果表明,部分地(di)區(qu)還存在產(chan)(chan)業(ye)(ye)(ye)發展(zhan)基礎不(bu)牢(lao)、聯農帶農機制不(bu)夠(gou)持續穩(wen)固、產(chan)(chan)業(ye)(ye)(ye)配套支持政策落(luo)(luo)(luo)實(shi)(shi)不(bu)夠(gou)精準有效等問題,不(bu)利于特色(se)產(chan)(chan)業(ye)(ye)(ye)發展(zhan)壯大和脫貧(pin)群眾(zhong)穩(wen)定增收。各地(di)區(qu)各部門要嚴格貫徹落(luo)(luo)(luo)實(shi)(shi)鄉(xiang)村振興(xing)責任制,針對存在的(de)問題,采取有效舉措抓整改,扎扎實(shi)(shi)實(shi)(shi)推進(jin)鄉(xiang)村振興(xing)各項任務落(luo)(luo)(luo)實(shi)(shi)。  

鞏(gong)(gong)固拓(tuo)展脫(tuo)(tuo)(tuo)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)攻堅成(cheng)果(guo)是全面推進鄉(xiang)村振興的底線任(ren)務(wu)。當前(qian),受(shou)新冠疫情(qing)、國內國際經濟下行(xing)等因(yin)素影(ying)響,鞏(gong)(gong)固拓(tuo)展脫(tuo)(tuo)(tuo)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)攻堅成(cheng)果(guo)遇到一些新情(qing)況(kuang)。要繼續壓緊壓實責任(ren),發(fa)(fa)(fa)揮好防(fang)止返貧(pin)(pin)(pin)監(jian)測幫(bang)扶機制(zhi)預警響應作(zuo)用,把脫(tuo)(tuo)(tuo)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)人口和(he)(he)脫(tuo)(tuo)(tuo)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)地(di)(di)區(qu)的幫(bang)扶政策(ce)銜(xian)接好、措施落到位,實現平(ping)穩過(guo)渡,堅決防(fang)止出現整村整鄉(xiang)返貧(pin)(pin)(pin)現象。要更多在(zai)增強脫(tuo)(tuo)(tuo)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)地(di)(di)區(qu)和(he)(he)脫(tuo)(tuo)(tuo)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)群(qun)眾(zhong)內生發(fa)(fa)(fa)展動力上(shang)下功夫,把增加脫(tuo)(tuo)(tuo)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)群(qun)眾(zhong)收入(ru)作(zuo)為(wei)主攻方向,在(zai)促(cu)進脫(tuo)(tuo)(tuo)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)地(di)(di)區(qu)加快發(fa)(fa)(fa)展上(shang)多想辦法,推動各類(lei)資源(yuan)、幫(bang)扶措施向促(cu)進產業發(fa)(fa)(fa)展和(he)(he)擴大(da)就業聚焦聚力。要注重激發(fa)(fa)(fa)脫(tuo)(tuo)(tuo)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)群(qun)眾(zhong)依靠自身(shen)力量發(fa)(fa)(fa)展的志氣(qi)(qi)心(xin)氣(qi)(qi)底氣(qi)(qi),讓勤(qin)勞致富的受(shou)激勵,防(fang)止“養(yang)懶漢”。鼓(gu)勵(li)實(shi)(shi)行(xing)發(fa)展(zhan)類(lei)的(de)(de)補貼,要倡(chang)導(dao)多干(gan)(gan)多補、少(shao)干(gan)(gan)少(shao)補、不(bu)干(gan)(gan)不(bu)補。鼓(gu)勵(li)實(shi)(shi)施建(jian)設類(lei)的(de)(de)項目,也(ye)要分清什(shen)么事(shi)該(gai)政(zheng)(zheng)府干(gan)(gan)、什(shen)么事(shi)該(gai)農民(min)干(gan)(gan),再也(ye)不(bu)要干(gan)(gan)那種(zhong)干(gan)(gan)部干(gan)(gan)、農民(min)看的(de)(de)事(shi)情。現在,5年過(guo)渡(du)期(qi)已過(guo)兩年,要謀劃(hua)過(guo)渡(du)期(qi)后的(de)(de)具體制(zhi)度(du)安排,推(tui)動防止返貧(pin)幫(bang)扶政(zheng)(zheng)策和農村低收入人口(kou)常態化(hua)幫(bang)扶政(zheng)(zheng)策銜(xian)接并軌,把(ba)符合條件的(de)(de)對象全部納(na)入常態化(hua)幫(bang)扶,研究建(jian)立欠發(fa)達地(di)區常態化(hua)幫(bang)扶機制(zhi)。應(ying)該(gai)由(you)政(zheng)(zheng)策兜底幫(bang)扶的(de)(de)脫(tuo)貧(pin)人口(kou),要逐步同通過(guo)正常幫(bang)扶有能(neng)力穩定脫(tuo)貧(pin)的(de)(de)人口(kou)分開,實(shi)(shi)行(xing)分類(lei)管理。  

 要堅(jian)持(chi)把增加農民(min)收入作為“三農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)”工作的(de)(de)中心(xin)任務,千方(fang)百計(ji)拓(tuo)寬農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)民(min)(min)增(zeng)收(shou)致富(fu)渠道(dao)。要(yao)發展比較優勢明顯、帶動能力強、就業容量大的(de)(de)縣域富(fu)民(min)(min)產業,多(duo)措并(bing)舉促進農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)民(min)(min)工穩崗就業,挖掘經營(ying)增(zeng)收(shou)和務工增(zeng)收(shou)潛力。要(yao)完善聯農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)帶農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)機(ji)制,注重(zhong)把產業增(zeng)值(zhi)收(shou)益(yi)更多(duo)留給(gei)農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)民(min)(min),讓農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)民(min)(min)挑上“金扁(bian)擔”。要(yao)加(jia)大惠農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)富(fu)農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)政策力度,給(gei)農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)民(min)(min)的(de)(de)補貼能增(zeng)加(jia)的(de)(de)還要(yao)增(zeng)加(jia),社會(hui)保障水平能提高的(de)(de)還要(yao)提高,農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)各類(lei)資源要(yao)素能激(ji)活(huo)的(de)(de)盡量激(ji)活(huo),讓農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)民(min)(min)腰包越(yue)來越(yue)鼓、日子越(yue)過越(yue)紅火(huo)。  

四(si)、依靠科技和改革雙(shuang)輪驅動加快(kuai)建設(she)農業強國  

建設農(nong)業強國,利器在科技(ji),關鍵(jian)靠改革(ge)。必(bi)須協同推進(jin)(jin)(jin)科技(ji)創新(xin)(xin)和制度(du)創新(xin)(xin),開辟新(xin)(xin)領域新(xin)(xin)賽道,塑造(zao)新(xin)(xin)動能新(xin)(xin)優勢,加快實現(xian)(xian)(xian)量的突破和質的躍升。  當前,我(wo)(wo)國農(nong)業科技(ji)創新(xin)(xin)整體邁(mai)進(jin)(jin)(jin)了世界第一方陣(zhen),但農(nong)業科技(ji)進(jin)(jin)(jin)步(bu)貢(gong)獻率同世界先(xian)進(jin)(jin)(jin)水平相比還有不小的差距(ju)。我(wo)(wo)們的資源就那(nei)么多,超大(da)規模(mo)市(shi)場對農(nong)產(chan)品(pin)的需求又不斷增(zeng)長,現(xian)(xian)(xian)在比以往任(ren)何(he)時候都更加需要重視和依靠農(nong)業科技(ji)創新(xin)(xin),不僅要立志補上短(duan)板弱項,還要立志發揮后發優勢、實現(xian)(xian)(xian)“彎(wan)道超車”。要(yao)緊盯世界農(nong)(nong)業(ye)科(ke)(ke)(ke)技(ji)(ji)前沿,大力(li)提(ti)升(sheng)我國(guo)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)科(ke)(ke)(ke)技(ji)(ji)水平(ping),加快實現(xian)高水平(ping)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)科(ke)(ke)(ke)技(ji)(ji)自(zi)(zi)立自(zi)(zi)強。  農(nong)(nong)業(ye)科(ke)(ke)(ke)技(ji)(ji)創(chuang)新(xin)要(yao)著(zhu)力(li)提(ti)升(sheng)創(chuang)新(xin)體(ti)系(xi)整體(ti)效能,解決好各(ge)自(zi)(zi)為(wei)戰(zhan)、低水平(ping)重復、轉化(hua)率不高等突出問題(ti)。要(yao)以(yi)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)關(guan)(guan)鍵核心(xin)技(ji)(ji)術攻關(guan)(guan)為(wei)引領,以(yi)產業(ye)急需為(wei)導向,聚焦底盤(pan)技(ji)(ji)術、核心(xin)種(zhong)源(yuan)、關(guan)(guan)鍵農(nong)(nong)機裝備(bei)、合成(cheng)藥物、耕(geng)地(di)質量、農(nong)(nong)業(ye)節(jie)水等領域,發揮新(xin)型(xing)舉國(guo)體(ti)制優(you)勢,整合各(ge)級各(ge)類優(you)勢科(ke)(ke)(ke)研資源(yuan),強化(hua)企業(ye)科(ke)(ke)(ke)技(ji)(ji)創(chuang)新(xin)主體(ti)地(di)位(wei),構建(jian)梯(ti)次(ci)分明、分工協作、適度(du)競爭的農(nong)(nong)業(ye)科(ke)(ke)(ke)技(ji)(ji)創(chuang)新(xin)體(ti)系(xi)。要(yao)打造國(guo)家農(nong)(nong)業(ye)科(ke)(ke)(ke)技(ji)(ji)戰(zhan)略力(li)量,支(zhi)持(chi)(chi)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)領域重大創(chuang)新(xin)平(ping)臺(tai)建(jian)設。農(nong)(nong)業(ye)科(ke)(ke)(ke)技(ji)(ji)創(chuang)新(xin)周(zhou)期相(xiang)對較長,要(yao)舍得下(xia)力(li)氣、增(zeng)投(tou)入,給予長期穩定(ding)的支(zhi)持(chi)(chi)。

農(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)科技(ji)工(gong)作(zuo)要(yao)突出應用導向,加(jia)快成果轉化(hua),把(ba)論(lun)文寫在(zai)大地(di)上(shang)。農(nong)(nong)(nong)戶(hu)分散經(jing)(jing)營仍然是我國(guo)農(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)經(jing)(jing)營的(de)基本面,農(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)科技(ji)推(tui)(tui)廣(guang)任(ren)務(wu)很(hen)重,必(bi)須政(zheng)府和市場協同(tong)(tong)發力。基層(ceng)農(nong)(nong)(nong)技(ji)推(tui)(tui)廣(guang)體系要(yao)穩定隊伍、提升素質、回歸主業(ye),強化(hua)公益性(xing)服務(wu)功(gong)能。同(tong)(tong)時,要(yao)鼓(gu)勵發展(zhan)各類社會化(hua)農(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)科技(ji)服務(wu)組織,創新市場化(hua)農(nong)(nong)(nong)技(ji)推(tui)(tui)廣(guang)模式,打通科技(ji)進(jin)村入戶(hu)“最后(hou)一公里”。  

 加(jia)快建設農業強國,迫切需要(yao)改(gai)(gai)革增動力、添活力。深化農村改(gai)(gai)革,必須繼續把(ba)住處理好農民(min)(min)和土地關系這條主(zhu)線,把(ba)強化集(ji)體所有制根(gen)基、保(bao)障和實現農民(min)(min)集(ji)體成(cheng)員(yuan)權(quan)(quan)(quan)利同激活資(zi)源(yuan)要(yao)素統一起來,搞好農村集(ji)體資(zi)源(yuan)資(zi)產的權(quan)(quan)(quan)利分置(zhi)和權(quan)(quan)(quan)能完(wan)善,讓(rang)廣大農民(min)(min)在(zai)改(gai)(gai)革中(zhong)分享更多(duo)成(cheng)果。  

 當前,各地(di)第二(er)輪土地(di)承包正(zheng)陸續到期,要扎實做好承包期再延長30年的各項工作,確保(bao)大(da)(da)多數農(nong)戶(hu)原有承包權保(bao)持(chi)穩定、順(shun)利延(yan)包。有條件的地方可在農(nong)民自愿前提下,探索開展農(nong)田集中連片整(zheng)理,解決細(xi)碎化(hua)(hua)問題。發(fa)展適度規(gui)模經營(ying)是(shi)現代農(nong)業的方向,要支持(chi)有條件的小(xiao)農(nong)戶(hu)成長為(wei)家(jia)庭農(nong)場,支持(chi)家(jia)庭農(nong)場組建農(nong)民合(he)作社、合(he)作社根據發(fa)展需要辦企(qi)業,加快健全農(nong)業社會(hui)化(hua)(hua)服務體系,把小(xiao)農(nong)戶(hu)服務好、帶(dai)動好。土地經營(ying)權流轉、集中、規(gui)模經營(ying)要把握好度,不(bu)能依靠行(xing)政(zheng)手段強(qiang)行(xing)流轉農(nong)民土地,人為(wei)壘大(da)(da)戶(hu)、搞(gao)不(bu)切實(shi)際(ji)的大(da)(da)規(gui)模甚至超(chao)大(da)(da)規(gui)模經營(ying),防止強(qiang)行(xing)收(shou)回農(nong)民承包地搞(gao)“反(fan)租倒包”。  

 要(yao)穩慎(shen)推進農村宅(zhai)基(ji)地(di)(di)制度改革(ge)試點,聚(ju)焦保障居住、管住亂(luan)建、盤活(huo)閑置,在試點中(zhong)不斷(duan)探索完(wan)善集(ji)體(ti)所有權、農戶(hu)資格權、宅(zhai)基(ji)地(di)(di)使用權等權利內(nei)容及其分置的實(shi)現形式。要(yao)深(shen)化(hua)農村集(ji)體(ti)經營性建設(she)用地(di)(di)入市試點,完(wan)善土地(di)(di)增值收益(yi)分配(pei)機制,增強(qiang)改革(ge)系統性。  

 農村集(ji)體產(chan)權(quan)制(zhi)度改革重(zhong)點是適(shi)應社會(hui)主義市(shi)場(chang)經濟要求,構建產(chan)權(quan)關(guan)系明(ming)晰(xi)、治(zhi)理(li)架構科(ke)學、經營方式穩健、收益分配合理(li)的(de)運(yun)行機制(zhi),充分利用農村集(ji)體自身資源條(tiao)件、經營能力,探(tan)索資源發包、物(wu)業出(chu)租、居間(jian)服(fu)務、資產(chan)參股等多(duo)樣(yang)化途徑發展新(xin)型農村集(ji)體經濟。發展集(ji)體經濟必(bi)須尊重(zhong)群眾(zhong)意愿、遵循市(shi)場(chang)規(gui)律,不能走“歸大(da)堆”的(de)老(lao)路子。要健全農村(cun)集(ji)體(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)資(zi)產(chan)監管體(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)系,嚴格控(kong)制集(ji)體(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)經(jing)營風險(xian),堅(jian)決(jue)遏止新(xin)增(zeng)債務,充(chong)分保障(zhang)集(ji)體(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)成員(yuan)的(de)知情權、參(can)與權、監督權,決(jue)不能(neng)讓集(ji)體(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)經(jing)濟變成少(shao)數人的(de)“小金庫”。  

 要(yao)(yao)順(shun)應城鄉(xiang)融(rong)合發展大趨勢(shi),破(po)(po)除(chu)妨礙城鄉(xiang)要(yao)(yao)素平(ping)等(deng)交換(huan)、雙向流動的(de)制度壁壘,促進發展要(yao)(yao)素、各類服(fu)務更多下鄉(xiang),率先在縣域內(nei)破(po)(po)除(chu)城鄉(xiang)二元結構。要(yao)(yao)鼓勵(li)社會(hui)資本下鄉(xiang)成為農(nong)(nong)業(ye)經營主體,但必須守住經營農(nong)(nong)業(ye)、農(nong)(nong)民受(shou)益的(de)基本要(yao)(yao)求,防(fang)止跑馬圈地。要(yao)(yao)加快農(nong)(nong)業(ye)轉(zhuan)移人口市民化(hua),健(jian)全常住地提供基本公(gong)共服(fu)務制度,讓能進城愿進城的(de),更快更好融(rong)入(ru)城市。同(tong)時,要(yao)(yao)保障(zhang)進城落戶農(nong)(nong)民土地等(deng)合法(fa)權益,鼓勵(li)依法(fa)自愿有償退出(chu)。  

 推進(jin)農(nong)(nong)村改革,必須(xu)保持歷史耐心,看準了再推,條(tiao)件不(bu)(bu)成熟(shu)的不(bu)(bu)要(yao)(yao)急于去動。對涉及土地(di)、耕(geng)(geng)地(di)等農(nong)(nong)民基本權益(yi)特(te)別是改變千百(bai)年來生(sheng)產生(sheng)活方(fang)式(shi)的事情,一定要(yao)(yao)慎(shen)之又(you)慎(shen),牢牢守住土地(di)公有制性質不(bu)(bu)改變、耕(geng)(geng)地(di)紅線不(bu)(bu)突破、農(nong)(nong)民利益(yi)不(bu)(bu)受損的底線。  

 五、大力推進農村(cun)現代(dai)化(hua)建設  

農(nong)村(cun)(cun)現(xian)代(dai)化是建設農(nong)業(ye)(ye)強(qiang)國(guo)的內在要(yao)求和必要(yao)條(tiao)件,建設宜居宜業(ye)(ye)和美鄉村(cun)(cun)是農(nong)業(ye)(ye)強(qiang)國(guo)的應有(you)之義。農(nong)業(ye)(ye)因人類(lei)定居而(er)興,村(cun)(cun)落因農(nong)事活動而(er)聚,鄉村(cun)(cun)不僅是農(nong)業(ye)(ye)生產的空間載體,也是廣(guang)大農(nong)民生于斯長于斯的家園(yuan)故土(tu)。建設農(nong)業(ye)(ye)強(qiang)國(guo)要(yao)一(yi)體推進(jin)農(nong)業(ye)(ye)現(xian)代(dai)化和農(nong)村(cun)(cun)現(xian)代(dai)化,實現(xian)鄉村(cun)(cun)由表及里(li)、形神(shen)兼備的全面提升。  這些年,鄉村(cun)(cun)建設取得(de)一(yi)定成(cheng)效,但(dan)農(nong)村(cun)(cun)基礎設施仍不完善,公共服務(wu)水平不高,欠(qian)賬還(huan)很多。要(yao)瞄準(zhun)“農村(cun)(cun)(cun)基(ji)本具備(bei)現代(dai)(dai)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活條件(jian)”的(de)目標,組織(zhi)實施好(hao)(hao)鄉(xiang)村(cun)(cun)(cun)建(jian)(jian)(jian)設(she)(she)(she)行動(dong),特別是(shi)要加(jia)快防疫、養老(lao)、教育、醫療等方面的(de)公共服(fu)務(wu)設(she)(she)(she)施建(jian)(jian)(jian)設(she)(she)(she),提高鄉(xiang)村(cun)(cun)(cun)基(ji)礎設(she)(she)(she)施完備(bei)度(du)、公共服(fu)務(wu)便利度(du)、人居環(huan)境舒適度(du),讓農民(min)(min)(min)就地(di)過(guo)上現代(dai)(dai)文(wen)明(ming)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活。要對(dui)我國城鎮化趨勢、城鄉(xiang)格(ge)(ge)局(ju)(ju)(ju)變化進(jin)行研判,科學謀劃村(cun)(cun)(cun)莊布局(ju)(ju)(ju),防止“有(you)(you)村(cun)(cun)(cun)無民(min)(min)(min)”造成(cheng)浪費。鄉(xiang)村(cun)(cun)(cun)建(jian)(jian)(jian)設(she)(she)(she)要充分考慮財力可持(chi)(chi)續和農民(min)(min)(min)可接受,堅持(chi)(chi)數量(liang)服(fu)從質量(liang)、進(jin)度(du)服(fu)從實效,集中力量(liang)先抓好(hao)(hao)普惠性、基(ji)礎性、兜(dou)底性民(min)(min)(min)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)建(jian)(jian)(jian)設(she)(she)(she),優先建(jian)(jian)(jian)設(she)(she)(she)既方便生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活又促進(jin)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產的(de)項(xiang)目,標準(zhun)可以有(you)(you)高有(you)(you)低,但不能缺門漏項(xiang)。各(ge)地(di)村(cun)(cun)(cun)莊格(ge)(ge)局(ju)(ju)(ju)風(feng)貌是(shi)歷史(shi)(shi)上順應(ying)地(di)理(li)、氣候(hou)、人文(wen)條件(jian)延續而(er)成(cheng)的(de),要敬(jing)(jing)畏(wei)歷史(shi)(shi)、敬(jing)(jing)畏(wei)文(wen)化、敬(jing)(jing)畏(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)態,留(liu)住(zhu)鄉(xiang)風(feng)鄉(xiang)韻鄉(xiang)愁。鄉(xiang)村(cun)(cun)(cun)建(jian)(jian)(jian)設(she)(she)(she)是(shi)為(wei)農民(min)(min)(min)而(er)建(jian)(jian)(jian),要健全自下而(er)上、農民(min)(min)(min)參與的(de)實施機(ji)制(zhi),多聽群眾意(yi)見,照(zhao)顧農民(min)(min)(min)感(gan)受。  

要完(wan)善黨(dang)組(zu)(zu)織(zhi)領(ling)導(dao)的(de)自治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)、法治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)、德治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)相結合的(de)鄉村治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)理(li)(li)體系,讓農村既充滿活力又(you)穩(wen)定有序。要堅持大(da)抓基(ji)層(ceng)的(de)鮮明導(dao)向,推動治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)理(li)(li)和(he)服務(wu)重心下(xia)移、資源下(xia)沉,推動鄉鎮賦(fu)權(quan)擴能,整(zheng)合力量、提(ti)升能力,確(que)保接得住、用得好。要深(shen)化(hua)黨(dang)組(zu)(zu)織(zhi)領(ling)導(dao)的(de)村民自治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)實(shi)踐,創新鄉村治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)理(li)(li)抓手(shou)載體,完(wan)善推廣積分(fen)制(zhi)、清單(dan)制(zhi)、數字化(hua)、接訴即辦(ban)等務(wu)實(shi)管用的(de)治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)理(li)(li)方式。  

推進(jin)農村現(xian)代化,不僅物質生活要(yao)(yao)(yao)富裕,精神生活也(ye)要(yao)(yao)(yao)富足。農村精神文明(ming)建設要(yao)(yao)(yao)同傳承優秀農耕文化結(jie)合(he)起來(lai),同農民(min)(min)群(qun)眾日用而不覺的(de)(de)共(gong)同價值理(li)念結(jie)合(he)起來(lai),弘揚敦親睦鄰、守望相助、誠(cheng)信重禮的(de)(de)鄉風(feng)民(min)(min)風(feng)。要(yao)(yao)(yao)加強(qiang)法(fa)治教育(yu),引導(dao)農民(min)(min)辦事依法(fa)、遇事找法(fa)、解(jie)(jie)決問題用法(fa)、化解(jie)(jie)矛盾靠法(fa)。農村移(yi)風(feng)易俗(su)重在常抓不懈(xie),找準實際推動的(de)(de)具體辦法(fa),創新用好村規民(min)(min)約(yue)等(deng)手(shou)段,倡導(dao)性和約(yue)束(shu)性措施并舉,綿綿用力,成風(feng)化俗(su),堅持下去,一定能見到好的(de)(de)效果。 

 六(liu)、加強(qiang)黨對加快建設農業(ye)強(qiang)國的全面(mian)領導(dao)  

 全面推進(jin)鄉(xiang)村(cun)振興、加(jia)快(kuai)建(jian)設(she)農業強(qiang)國,關(guan)鍵在黨。必須堅持黨領(ling)導“三農”工(gong)作(zuo)原則不動搖(yao),健全領導(dao)體制和工(gong)作(zuo)機制,為加(jia)快建設農業強國提供(gong)堅強保(bao)證。  

 五級(ji)書(shu)記抓鄉(xiang)村(cun)振興是(shi)黨(dang)中央的(de)明確要(yao)(yao)求(qiu),也是(shi)加快建設農業(ye)強國的(de)有(you)效(xiao)機制(zhi)。市縣(xian)兩級(ji)更(geng)要(yao)(yao)把(ba)“三(san)農(nong)(nong)”工(gong)作(zuo)作(zuo)為重(zhong)頭戲,花(hua)大精力來抓(zhua),特別是(shi)縣委(wei)書(shu)記(ji)(ji)要當好“一(yi)線總指(zhi)揮”,不(bu)重(zhong)視(shi)“三(san)農(nong)(nong)”的書(shu)記(ji)(ji)不(bu)是(shi)好書(shu)記(ji)(ji),抓(zhua)不(bu)好農(nong)(nong)村工(gong)作(zuo)的書(shu)記(ji)(ji)不(bu)是(shi)稱職的書(shu)記(ji)(ji)。要完善(shan)考核督查機制,以(yi)責任落實推動(dong)工(gong)作(zuo)落實、政策落實。  

 各級(ji)黨委要(yao)加(jia)大(da)對涉農(nong)干部的培訓力度,提(ti)高“三農(nong)”工(gong)(gong)作本領,改進(jin)工(gong)(gong)作作風,打(da)造一(yi)支政(zheng)治過硬、適(shi)應(ying)新時代要(yao)(yao)求、具有(you)領導農(nong)業強(qiang)(qiang)國建(jian)設(she)能(neng)力的(de)(de)“三農(nong)”干(gan)部隊伍。各級黨政(zheng)干(gan)部要(yao)(yao)把調查研究、求真務實作為基本功,不能(neng)脫離實際,想當(dang)然、拍腦袋(dai);要(yao)(yao)強(qiang)(qiang)化(hua)系統觀念(nian),統籌處理好兩難甚至多難問題,不能(neng)“按下葫蘆起(qi)了瓢”。要(yao)(yao)樹(shu)牢群(qun)眾觀點、貫徹群(qun)眾路線,經常到(dao)農(nong)民(min)(min)群(qun)眾家中走(zou)一(yi)走(zou)、看一(yi)看,深(shen)入群(qun)眾、扎根群(qun)眾,問需于(yu)民(min)(min)、問計于(yu)民(min)(min),關心群(qun)眾安危(wei)冷暖、急難愁盼,從農(nong)民(min)(min)群(qun)眾的(de)(de)喜怒哀樂中檢視我(wo)們的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)作。  

 人(ren)(ren)才(cai)(cai)是最寶貴的(de)資源,是加(jia)快(kuai)(kuai)建設(she)農業(ye)(ye)強國(guo)(guo)的(de)基礎(chu)性、戰略性支撐(cheng)。一些農村(cun)發(fa)展乏力,關鍵(jian)在于缺人(ren)(ren)才(cai)(cai),缺發(fa)展引路人(ren)(ren)、產業(ye)(ye)帶頭(tou)人(ren)(ren)、政(zheng)策(ce)明白人(ren)(ren)。各級黨委(wei)和(he)政(zheng)府要堅持本土(tu)培養和(he)外部引進相結合,用鄉(xiang)村(cun)廣(guang)闊天地的(de)發(fa)展機遇吸引人(ren)(ren),用鄉(xiang)村(cun)田園宜(yi)居的(de)優美(mei)環境留(liu)(liu)住人(ren)(ren)。要著(zhu)力培養一批鄉(xiang)村(cun)人(ren)(ren)才(cai)(cai),重(zhong)點加(jia)強村(cun)黨組織書記和(he)新型農業(ye)(ye)經營(ying)主體帶頭(tou)人(ren)(ren)培訓,全(quan)面提(ti)升農民素質(zhi)素養,育好用好鄉(xiang)土(tu)人(ren)(ren)才(cai)(cai)。同(tong)時,要引進一批人(ren)(ren)才(cai)(cai),有(you)序引導(dao)大(da)學(xue)畢業(ye)(ye)生到(dao)鄉(xiang)、能人(ren)(ren)回(hui)鄉(xiang)、農民工返鄉(xiang)、企業(ye)(ye)家入鄉(xiang),創(chuang)(chuang)造機會(hui)、暢通渠(qu)道、營(ying)造環境,幫助(zhu)解決職業(ye)(ye)發(fa)展、社會(hui)保障等(deng)后顧之憂,讓(rang)其留(liu)(liu)得(de)下、能創(chuang)(chuang)業(ye)(ye)。要樹立階段性用才(cai)(cai)理念,不求所有(you)、但求所用。要推動縣(xian)域內人(ren)(ren)才(cai)(cai)打通使(shi)用,有(you)計劃地把重(zhong)點培養的(de)黨政(zheng)干部人(ren)(ren)才(cai)(cai)和(he)專業(ye)(ye)技術人(ren)(ren)才(cai)(cai)放到(dao)農村(cun)去,讓(rang)他們在一線擔當作為、鍛煉(lian)成長。通過多方面努力,著(zhu)力打造一支沉(chen)得(de)下、留(liu)(liu)得(de)住、能管用的(de)鄉(xiang)村(cun)人(ren)(ren)才(cai)(cai)隊(dui)伍,強化全(quan)面推進鄉(xiang)村(cun)振興(xing)、加(jia)快(kuai)(kuai)建設(she)農業(ye)(ye)強國(guo)(guo)的(de)智力支持和(he)人(ren)(ren)才(cai)(cai)支撐(cheng)。

  農村(cun)(cun)基層黨(dang)(dang)(dang)組(zu)(zu)(zu)織(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)是黨(dang)(dang)(dang)在(zai)農村(cun)(cun)全(quan)部工(gong)作和戰斗力(li)的(de)基礎。要(yao)健全(quan)村(cun)(cun)黨(dang)(dang)(dang)組(zu)(zu)(zu)織(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)領(ling)(ling)導的(de)村(cun)(cun)級(ji)組(zu)(zu)(zu)織(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)體系(xi),把農村(cun)(cun)基層黨(dang)(dang)(dang)組(zu)(zu)(zu)織(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)建(jian)設成為有效實(shi)現(xian)黨(dang)(dang)(dang)的(de)領(ling)(ling)導的(de)堅強戰斗堡壘,把村(cun)(cun)級(ji)自(zi)治組(zu)(zu)(zu)織(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)、集(ji)體經(jing)濟(ji)組(zu)(zu)(zu)織(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)、農民合(he)作組(zu)(zu)(zu)織(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)、各類社會組(zu)(zu)(zu)織(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)等緊緊團(tuan)結(jie)在(zai)黨(dang)(dang)(dang)組(zu)(zu)(zu)織(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)的(de)周圍,團(tuan)結(jie)帶(dai)領(ling)(ling)農民群眾(zhong)聽黨(dang)(dang)(dang)話(hua)、感黨(dang)(dang)(dang)恩、跟(gen)黨(dang)(dang)(dang)走。這一輪(lun)全(quan)國(guo)村(cun)(cun)“兩委”集中(zhong)換屆已經全部完成,要全面(mian)(mian)培訓提高村(cun)(cun)(cun)班子領導鄉(xiang)村(cun)(cun)(cun)振(zhen)(zhen)興能力,不斷(duan)優化(hua)帶頭人隊(dui)伍,派(pai)強用好駐村(cun)(cun)(cun)第一書記(ji)和(he)工作(zuo)隊(dui),注重選拔優秀年輕干(gan)部到農(nong)村(cun)(cun)(cun)基層(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)鍛煉成長,充分(fen)發揮農(nong)村(cun)(cun)(cun)黨員先鋒模范作(zuo)用。當前,村(cun)(cun)(cun)黨組(zu)織、自治組(zu)織負責人普遍(bian)實(shi)現(xian)(xian)了“一肩(jian)挑”,有的(de)(de)還(huan)兼任村(cun)(cun)(cun)集體經濟(ji)組(zu)織負責人,對他(ta)們的(de)(de)監(jian)督管理必須跟上,堅決防止出現(xian)(xian)“小(xiao)官巨貪”和(he)無(wu)法無(wu)天的(de)(de)“村(cun)(cun)(cun)霸”。要推動基層(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)紀(ji)檢監(jian)察(cha)組(zu)織和(he)村(cun)(cun)(cun)務監(jian)督委員會有效(xiao)銜接,把紀(ji)檢監(jian)察(cha)工作(zuo)向村(cun)(cun)(cun)延伸覆蓋。要持續(xu)為農(nong)村(cun)(cun)(cun)基層(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)干(gan)部減負,深入整治形(xing)式(shi)主義、官僚主義,減少名目繁多、變形(xing)走樣(yang)的(de)(de)考核評估、督查檢查等,讓(rang)基層(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)干(gan)部有更多精力為農(nong)民辦實(shi)事。  同志(zhi)們,農(nong)業強國,是拼出來(lai)(lai)(lai)、干(gan)出來(lai)(lai)(lai)、奮(fen)斗出來(lai)(lai)(lai)的(de)(de)。從現(xian)(xian)在(zai)開(kai)始,就要鉚足(zu)干(gan)勁,全面(mian)(mian)推進鄉(xiang)村(cun)(cun)(cun)振(zhen)(zhen)興,加快農(nong)業農(nong)村(cun)(cun)(cun)現(xian)(xian)代化(hua)步伐,為加快建設農(nong)業強國而努力奮(fen)斗。